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Commonly Used Additives and Cleaners

Acid blend (citric, malic, and tartaric) – One teaspoon per gallon increases acidity by 0.1%

Amylase Enzyme - used by all-grain brewers to add to a high adjunct mash that may be low in enzymes to aid in converting starches into sugar. This enzyme can also prevent starch haze in beer. Use 1 teaspoon per 5 gallon batch

Ascorbic acid – Vitamin C - preservative and is used to reduce the risk of oxidation in your bottled beer or wine.  Oxidation can leave off aromas and off taste in beer and wine.  Ascorbic Acid is an organic acid with antioxidant properties. Use 1 teaspoon per 5 gallons when bottling.

Belgian Syrups – Adds caramel color and light fruit palate to authentic Belgian Tripels, Saisons, Golden Ales, and Bier de Garde.

Bentonite - clay-based clarifier that absorbs colloidal substances. Usually added prior to fermentation, sometimes during secondary to wine. 2 tsp in ½ cup of warm water treats five gallons.

Calcium Carbonate - Calcium Carbonate (precipitated chalk) increases pH; 1 gram per gallon adds 106 ppm calcium, 158 ppm carbonate. Add ½ tsp per gallon of water at start of fermentation to lower acidity by 0.1%. Cold stabilize for one month before racking. Not recommended to lower by more than 0.3%.

Calcium Chloride - lowers mash pH; 1 gram per gallon adds 72 ppm calcium, 127 ppm chloride. Calcium Chloride is used to correct mineral deficiencies in water which is to be used for brewing. It is used in demineralized or soft to medium hard water to increase permanent hardness.

Campden tablets - Potassium Metabisulfite (KMS) - prevents wild yeast, bacteria growth, and oxidation in your wine. Also works as a sanitizer for your wine making equipment. The convenient tablet form takes the guesswork out of measuring. Each tablet adds 75 ppm free KO2 per gallon (pH dependent). Grind the tablet into a powder and dissolve in water before using.

Citric acid - used in sanitizing solutions to lower the pH, which will make the SO2 level more effective. It is also used to increase acidity at a ratio of 0.1% for each teaspoon per gallon in wine. Be careful with how much you add to your wine because you will get a very tart flavor if you use to much.

Defoamer 105 - prevents and eliminates excessive foam in the brew kettle.

Easy Clean - No-rinse oxygen-based cleanser for beer and winemaking equipment. Use one tablespoon per gallon of water and allow two minutes contact time.

Gelatin finings – Clarifies wine. Also reduces astringency by removing tannin. Use 1/2 to 1 teaspoon per 5 gallons.

Glycerin - also known by winemakers as finishing formula. It sweetens, adds body, smooths and mellows wine and liqueurs. For wine, add 1 - 2 ounces per gallon. For liqueurs, add 1 -2 ounces per quart.

Gypsum - (calcium sulfate) adds permanent hardness (calcium ions) to brewing water; 1 gram per gallon adds 62 ppm calcium, 147 ppm sulfate. Brewers that use distilled, or RO, water like to add some gypsum back into the water to give it some hardness. Gypsum can also be used to lower the pH of water. Use 1 teaspoon per 5 gallons.

IO-Star – Iodine based sanitizer, and no-rinse required.

Irish moss – Helps to clarify beer. A kettle fining derived from seaweed. Add 1 teaspoon per 5 gallons to the last 15 minues of the boil to enhance cold break (protein coagulation).

Lactic Acid – lowers the pH of sparge water.

Lactose - A milk-based sugar that is not fully fermentable by beer yeast. Adds body and sweetness to sweet stouts. Add to boil.

Malic acid - Lowers pH and is a little less tart then tartaric acid. Potential use for acid adjustments in wine discouraged due to possible activation of malolactic activity along with strong 'apple' taste apparent in wines with high concentrations of malic acid.

Malto Dextrin - A largely unfermentable carbohydrate; add to the boil to increase body and mouthfeel in low-gravity beers.

One Step - No-rinse oxygen-based cleanser for beer and winemaking equipment. Use one tablespoon per gallon of water and allow two minutes contact time.

PBW Five Star – Alkali based cleaner that removes tough, caked-on debris and rinses clean. Recommended to use a sanitizer afterwards.

Pectin enzyme - Add to must to break down pulp and aid in the extraction of tannin. Can also abate pectin haze in wines and cider. Pectic Enzyme physically destroys pectins, which constitute the "fleshy" part of most fruits such as grapes, and apples. Adding it to a wine must will break down the pulp, making pressing more efficient. Adding it to red grape must will aid in the extraction of tannin from the skins. It can also abate pectin haze in wines and cider. Use 1/2 teaspoon per gallon.

Phosphoric Acid – 10% solution. May be used to lower sparge water pH; more stable than lactic acid at high temperatures.

Potassium bicarbonate - Reduces acidity in wine; use 3.8 grams/gallon to reduce acidity by 0.1%.

Potassium metabisulphite – Campden Powder (KMS) - prevents wild yeast, bacteria growth, and oxidation in your wine. Works well as a sanitizer for your wine making equipment.

Potassium sorbate - prevents renewed fermentation in wine that is to be bottled and/or sweetened. Use 1/2 teaspoon per gallon. When added to wine, potassium sorbate produces sorbic acid, serving two purposes: At the point when active fermentation has ceased and the wine is racked for the final time after clearing, potassium sorbate will render any surviving yeast incapable of multiplying. Yeast living at that moment will be permitted to continue fermenting any residual sugar into CO2 and alcohol, but when they die no new yeast will be present to cause future fermentation. When a wine is sweetened before bottling, potassium sorbate is used to prevent refermentation when used in conjunction with potassium metabisulfite. Please note: this product will not stop an active fermentation.

Sodium metabisulphite - Campden Powder (SMS) prevents wild yeast, bacteria growth, and oxidation in your wine. Works as a sanitizer for your wine making equipment.

Sparkolloid - Wine clarifier that forms very compact sediment without stripping color or flavor. Excellent for white and blush wines or mead. Mix 1 tablespoon(T) in one cup(8 oz.) of water. Boil the mixture for 5 minutes. Stir mixture during boil. Gently stir into 6 gallons of wine while mixture is still hot. Allow one to two weeks for wine to clear.

Star San – Acid based sanitizer, reusable, and no-rinse required.

Tartaric acid - The most desirable and stable of the wine acids. One teaspoon per gallon will increase acidity by 0.1%.

Wine tannin - Improves the flavor of a dull wine. Tannin can be used with white wines that have not been exposed to oak to add astringency. Wine tannin can also add an earthy flavor to red wines. Use in conjunction with gelatin or isinglass for later fining as well. Can also aid in clarifying.

Yeast energizer - blend of diammonium phosphate, yeast hulls, magnesium sulphate, and vitamin B complex. Used to stimulate or restart a fermentation. Add 1/2 teaspoon per gallon of wine must to stimulate or restart a fermentation. Then aerate and apply heat if necessary.

Yeast nutrient - mixture of diammonium phosphate and food-grade urea that nourishes yeast, ensuring that it remains healthy throughout fermentation. Add one teaspoon per gallon recommended for wine, mead, and cider.

Whirlfloc tablets - blend of Irish moss and purified carrageenan that help precipitate haze-causing proteins and beta glucans resulting in a clearer finished beer. Use one tablet per 10 gallon batch of beer in the last 5 minutes of the boil.

Wine Conditioner - Sweetener and stabilizer combined. Made from liquid invert sugar and potassium sorbate (prevents renewed fermentation). This product allows you to sweeten your wine without worry of fermentation or carbonation in the bottle. Some winemakers use conditioner to reduce aging. Use 2 - 4 ounces per gallon.